英詩紹介

  William Blake(1757-1827)
  ウィリアム・ブレイク



 情感豊かな抒情詩と神話的構造をもつ叙事詩(預言書)を数多く残したロマン派詩人。ロンドンの靴下商人の子として生まれた。小さいときからよく幻覚を見た。正規の教育は受けず、母から読み書きを教わり、14歳のときに彫刻師バザイアの弟子となり、7年後には銅版画家として独立し、本や雑誌の挿絵を彫板して生計を立てた。父の影響もあり、神秘思想家スウェーデンボルグの影響を大きく受けた。1783年には最初の詩集『Poetical Sketches 詩的素描』を出版した。ブレイクは貧窮のうちに69歳で亡くなったが、彼の詩と絵画とが合体した総合芸術は、後世に大きな影響を与えた。
 


感銘を受けた詩を挙げてみました。

訳は、 『ブレイク詩集』/ 寿岳文章 訳(世界の詩55・弥生書房)によります。


ブレイク詩集
弥生書房 '68初版

全画面表示
 1. The Tyger/ 虎 
Tyger! Tyger! burning bright,
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
In what distant deeps or skies
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand dare sieze the fire?
And what shoulder, & what art,
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And when thy heart began to beat,
What dread hand? & what dread feet?
What the hammer? what the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? what dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?
When the stars threw down their spears,
And water'd heaven with their tears,
Did he smile his work to see?
Did he who made the Lamb make thee?
Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

    Tyger of Wrath/William Blake

(注)"tyger"はブレイクによる原本の表記で、
 テキストにより、"tiger"となっていることもあります。
虎よ! 虎よ! あかあかと燃える
闇くろぐろの 夜の森に
どんな不死の手 または目が
おまえの怖ろしい均整を つくり得たか?

どこの遠い海 または空に
おまえの目の その火は燃えていたか?
どんな翼に乗って 神は天(あま)がけったか?
その火をあえて捕えた手は どんな手か?

またどんな肩 どんな技(わざ)が
おまえの心臓の筋を ねじり得たか?
またおまえの心臓が うち始めたとき
どんな恐ろしい手が おまえの恐ろしい足を形作ったか?

槌(つち)はどんな槌? 鎖はどんな鎖?
どんな釜に おまえの脳髄は入れられたか?
鉄床(かなとこ)はどんな鉄床? どんなおそろしい手力が
その死を致す恐怖を むずとつかんだか?

星星がその光の槍を投げおろし
涙で空をうるおしたとき
神は創造のおまえを見て にっこりされたか?
仔羊を創った神が おまえを創られたか?

虎よ! 虎よ! あかあかと燃える
闇くろぐろの 夜の森に
どんな不死の手 または目が
おまえの怖ろしい均整を あえてつくったか?



 2. The Sick Rose/ 病むばら
O Rose, thou art sick!
The invisible worm
That flies in the night,
In the howling storm,
Has found out thy bed
Of crimson joy,
And his dark secret love
Does thy life destroy.


おお ばらよ おまえは病む!
吼える嵐のなか
夜に飛ぶ
目に見えぬ虫が

深紅のよろこびの
おまえの寝床を見つけてしまった
その暗い 秘めた愛が
おまえのいのちを ほろぼしつくす



 3. The Angel/ 天使
I dreamt a Dream! what can it mean!
And that I was a maiden Queen,
Guarded by an Angel mild:
Witless woe was ne'er beguil'd!
And I wept both night and day,
And he wip'd my tears away,
And I wept both day and night,
And hid from him my heart's delight.
So he took his wings and fled;
Then the morn blush'd rosy red;
I dried my tears, & arm'd my fears
With ten thousand shields and spears.
Soon my Angel came again:
I was arm'd, he came in vain;
For the time of youth was fled,
And grey hairs were on my head.

わたしは一つの夢を見た! その夢の心はなに?
わたしは ひとりの天使に守られた
未婚の女王さま それなのに
切ない悲しみの はれるひまも無かった!

そして わたしは泣いた 夜も昼も
そして かれはわたしの涙をぬぐってくれた
そして わたしは泣いた 夜も昼も
そして かれから隠した わたしの心の喜びを

そこでかれは 翼に乗って 飛び去った
やがて朝が ばら色にあからんだ
わたしは涙を乾(ほ)し わたしの恐怖を武装した
一万もの 楯や槍で

まもなく わたしの天使はもどってきた
わたしは武装しており 天使は近よれない
青春の時は飛び去り
そして白髪が わたしの頭にあった



 4. The Lilly/ ゆり
The modest Rose puts forth a thorn,
The humble Sheep a threat'ning horn;
While the Lilly white shall in Love delight,
Nor a thorn, nor a threat, stain her beauty bright

しとやかな薔薇も 刺を出し
おとなしい羊にも おどかしの角がある
ただ 白ゆりだけは 純粋な愛の喜びにひたり
刺も おどしも その輝く美しさを汚さない



 5. London/ロンドン
I wander thro' each charter'd street,
Near where the charter'd Thames does flow,
And mark in every face I meet
Marks of weakness, marks of woe.
In every cry of every Man,
In every Infant's cry of fear,
In every voice, in every ban,
The mind-forg'd manacles I hear.
How the Chimney-sweepers cry
Every black'ning Church appalls;
And the hapless Soldier's sigh
Runs in blood down Palace walls.
But most thro' midnight streets I hear
How the youthful Harlot's curse
Blasts the new born Infant's tear,
And blights with plagues the Marriage hearse.

特権をひけらかす テムズ川の流れに沿い
特権をひけらかす 街街を歩きまわり
ゆききの人の顔に わたしが見つけるものは
虚弱のしるし 苦悩のしるし

ありとある人の ありとある叫びに
ありとある幼な児の 恐怖の叫びに
ありとある声に ありとある呪いに
心を縛る 枷(かせ)のひびきを わたしは聞く

煙突掃除の少年の叫びが なんと
黒ずみわたるありとある教会を すさまじくし
ふしあわせな兵士のためいきは
血汐となって 王宮の壁をつたう

だが 最もしばしば 深夜の町にわたしが聞くのは
生まれたばかりの乳のみ児の涙をからし
結婚の柩車を疫病で台無しにする
年若い娼婦の呪い声



 6. ゆめ語るとはすな 汝が恋を
Never seek to tell thy love
Love that never told could be;
For the gentle wind does move
Silently, invisibly.

I told my love, I told my love,
I told her all my heart,
Trembling, cold, in ghastly fears ?
Ah, she doth depart.

Soon as she was gone from me
A traveller came by
Silently, invisibly ?
O, was no deny.
ゆめ語るとはすな 汝が恋を
語るにも 語るすべなき恋を
なよ風は 動くならずや
もの言わず 目に見えず

われは語りぬわが恋を われは語りぬわが恋を
われはかの女に語りぬ わが胸のうちすべてを
うちふるえ つめたく おろおろと ―
ああ かの女は つと去りたり

かの女 われより去りて ほどなく
ひとりの旅人 きたりぬ
もの言わず 目に見えず ―
おお せんすべなかりき



 7. Auguries of Innocence/無心のまえぶれ
To see a world in a grain of sand
And a heaven in a wild flower,
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand
And eternity in an hour.

A robin redbreast in a cage
Puts all heaven in a rage.
A dove-house filled with doves and pigeons
Shudders hell through all its regions.
A dog starved at his master's gate
Predicts the ruin of the state.
A horse misused upon the road
Calls to heaven for human blood.
Each outcry of the hunted hare
A fibre from the brain does tear.
A skylark wounded in the wing,
A cherubim does cease to sing.
The game-cock clipped and armed for fight
Does the rising sun affright.
Every wolf's and lion's howl
Raises from hell a human soul.
The wild deer wandering here and there
Keeps the human soul from care.
The lamb misused breeds public strife,
And yet forgives the butcher's knife.
The bat that flits at close of eve
Has left the brain that won't believe.
The owl that calls upon the night
Speaks the unbeliever's fright.
He who shall hurt the little wren
Shall never be beloved by men.
He who the ox to wrath has moved
Shall never be by woman loved.
The wanton boy that kills the fly
Shall feel the spider's enmity.
He who torments the chafer's sprite
Weaves a bower in endless night.
The caterpillar on the leaf
Repeats to thee thy mother's grief.
Kill not the moth nor butterfly,
For the Last Judgment draweth nigh.
He who shall train the horse to war
Shall never pass the polar bar.
The beggar's dog and widow's cat,
Feed them, and thou wilt grow fat.
The gnat that sings his summer's song
Poison gets from Slander's tongue.
The poison of the snake and newt
Is the sweat of Envy's foot.
The poison of the honey-bee
Is the artist's jealousy.
The prince's robes and beggar's rags
Are toadstools on the miser's bags.
A truth that's told with bad intent
Beats all the lies you can invent.
It is right it should be so:
Man was made for joy and woe;
And when this we rightly know
Through the world we safely go.
Joy and woe are woven fine,
A clothing for the soul divine.
Under every grief and pine
Runs a joy with silken twine.
The babe is more than swaddling bands,
Throughout all these human lands;
Tools were made and born were hands,
Every farmer understands.
Every tear from every eye
Becomes a babe in eternity;
This is caught by females bright
And returned to its own delight.
The bleat, the bark, bellow, and roar
Are waves that beat on heaven's shore.
The babe that weeps the rod beneath
Writes Revenge! in realms of death.
The beggar's rags fluttering in air
Does to rags the heavens tear.
The soldier armed with sword and gun
Palsied strikes the summer's sun.
The poor man's farthing is worth more
Than all the gold on Afric's shore.
One mite wrung from the labourer's hands
Shall buy and sell the miser's lands,
Or if protected from on high
Does that whole nation sell and buy.
He who mocks the infant's faith
Shall be mocked in age and death.
He who shall teach the child to doubt
The rotting grave shall ne'er get out.
He who respects the infant's faith
Triumphs over hell and death.
The child's toys and the old man's reasons
Are the fruits of the two seasons.
The questioner who sits so sly
Shall never know how to reply.
He who replies to words of doubt
Doth put the light of knowledge out.
The strongest poison ever known
Came from Caesar's laurel crown.
Nought can deform the human race
Like to the armour's iron brace.
When gold and gems adorn the plough
To peaceful arts shall Envy bow.
A riddle or the cricket's cry
Is to doubt a fit reply.
The emmet's inch and eagle's mile
Make lame philosophy to smile.
He who doubts from what he sees
Will ne'er believe, do what you please.
If the sun and moon should doubt,
They'd immediately go out.
To be in a passion you good may do,
But no good if a passion is in you.
The whore and gambler, by the state
Licensed, build that nation's fate.
The harlot's cry from street to street
Shall weave old England's winding sheet.
The winner's shout, the loser's curse,
Dance before dead England's hearse.
Every night and every morn
Some to misery are born.
Every morn and every night
Some are born to sweet delight.
Some are born to sweet delight,
Some are born to endless night.
We are led to believe a lie
When we see not through the eye
Which was born in a night to perish in a night,
When the soul slept in beams of light.
God appears, and God is light
To those poor souls who dwell in night,
But does a human form display
To those who dwell in realms of day.
ひとつぶの砂にも世界を
いちりんの野の花にも天国を見
きみのたなごころに無限を
そしてひとときのうちに永遠をとらえる

籠(かご)にとらわれた赤い胸毛の駒鳥は
天国じゅうを憤らせる
鳩舎に家鳩と野鳩をびっしりつめこめば
地獄は隅隅まで身ぶるいする







































































































夜ごと 朝ごと
苦しみへと生まれるものあり
朝ごと 夜ごと
ここちよい喜びへと生まれるものあり
ここちよい喜びへと生まれるものあり
無明の長夜へと生まれるものあり
われわれが嘘をまことと信ずるようになるのは
目を通してものを見抜かないとき
その目は一夜で亡ぶべく一夜で生まれた
たましいが光の輝きの中に眠っているときに
神は姿をあらわす 神は光である
夜に住むあの哀れなたましいの持ち主には
しかし神ははっきりと人間の形を示す
真昼の領分に住む人たちには

○ ブレイク 関連出版リスト(Amazon) ○ 参考資料
 ・ウィリアム・ブレイク(Wikipedia)
 ・William Blake(Wikipedia 英語)
 ・対訳 ブレイク詩集―イギリス詩人選〈4〉 (岩波文庫)
  
 ・ウィリアム・ブレイク研究/大熊 昭信
  
 ・幻想の詩学―ウィリアム・ブレイク研究/鈴木 雅之
  


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